paradox and challenges in military leadership

The existing leadership styles are inadequate and are felt to be ineffective in the present and future due to the effect of technology and changes in socio-economic scenario. For each focal paradox, we uncover the dynamics, processes, management tensions, and possible subsequent outcomes. History is a testimony to it that, throughout time, people who were fortunate enough to have great military leaders has prospered by controlling their territory and dominating their neighbours and those civilizations without strong military leaders got conquered, destroyed or perished. There is a lot of value in identifying the character traits associated with leadership. 14. Military leadership too has seen changes since the time men went in to battle. 19. Leaders have to remember the vision that brought them there. team is failing, the business is going under, the recruits need to be whipped into shape Reed, G. (2012, October 25). The questions that arise are that how can the forces ensure proper character development and what can the leaders do to inspire these core values in their subordinates? First of all, basic terms related to communication, command and military leadership are explained. ترجمه شده با . Chapters In Books. Keith Humbard. Servant leadership also shares some of the same characteristics as transformational leadership (Bass, 1998; Stone, Russell, & Patterson, 2003). here we focus on what we want and don’t consider what other people want and need. At present, management is cast in a negative light. One of the Army leader’s primary responsibilities is to maintain an ethical climate that supports development of such a character. What can we learn from past and present coalitions that can better prepare soldiers and policymakers for the next multilateral military operation? We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Behavior: we need to know ourselves and what are the issues that get us out of control are, we need to learn when we have to delegate. This means that CEOs manage as much as lead. The fundamental meaning of leadership has not changed in all of recorded history. 22. Too often people are inflexible on their style and flexible on their principles-the opposite of what he advocates. The road to effective 21st century leadership will be determined by the various facets such as technological advancements, information technology, ethical practices, subordinate empowerment and socio-economic-political scenarios to name a few. In the present century the image of armed forces leadership are at times challenged by untoward incidents, therefore, honesty and integrity of the officers need to be the most excellent at all times to ensure that the standards expected from the armed forces officers are maintained. The existing military leadership styles are unable to meet the requirements of the changed environment to which major contributing factors have been technological and socio -economic changes. However, the below given quote appropriately describes that leadership cannot be defined in so simple terms as it encompasses various distinctive features: 10. Leaders have both good and bad traits, qualities that characterise their behaviour and we need to determine those traits which needs to be developed and the ones to stay away from. In affinity with the structural characteristics of a military organization, we can also identify military-organizational values and ethos that shape military leadership and that might hinder the formation of decentralized leadership. “High self-monitors”—or c… Military leadership has historically been very hierarchical in nature and, relative to other domains (industry, education, and so forth), relatively authoritarian. Ronit Kark . As described by PG Northouse [1] , leadership means, that it is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Inculcating Army values doesn’t end with basic training. A paradox lies at the center of traditional civil-military relations theory. 5. Images of Organizations. It is believed that Napoleon listed 115 qualities of leadership [3] and the common belief is that he stopped before completing the list. To precise the Character stems from a thorough understanding of Army values; however, this understanding must go beyond knowing the one-line definitions. In addition, some relevant periodicals and journal containing the subject available in print and on internet were perused. It is planned to analyse the problems likely to be faced by military leadership in future and assess the inadequacy of existing leadership styles, thereby arriving at a model for leadership styles demanded by the armed forces in 21st century. In times to come there is a requirement of having better leadership because of the socio economic changes in society and technological advancements. “During an operation decisions have usually to be made at once; there may be no time to review the situation or even to think it through . Leadership trait theory [9] is the idea that people are born with certain character traits or qualities. Together, these actions promote organizational excellence. It basically means that different experts will come up with different listing; therefore, certain amount of confusion will need to be accepted. Leaders and teams. It aims to identify and analyze key paradoxes that are reflected in this unique setting, while exploring the challenges, opportunities, and advantages … It is true that many of our dispositions and tendencies are influenced by our personalities and the way we are born. You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here.You can also find out more about Emerald Engage. The military leader of the future will have to have detailed knowledge of intricacies of the operations and men he commands so as to accomplish missions. Whether a soldier on a battlefield, a staff member meeting with customers, or an engineer building a key component, those doing the front line work have valuable insights. Mick addresses some of the fundamentals of leadership, and 6 of today's most pressing Leadership challenges. It has always been about the person in charge of the group. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-357120160000008031. Authentic leadership has drawn particular attention in this respect as one of the most popular topics in contemporary leadership. . Today, leaders are asked to lead in a world that is unlike anything anyone has ever experienced. However, most people recognize that it is possible for someone to change their character traits for the worse. Coming up with an exact list [5] of set of leadership traits is difficult due to: (a) Culture – What works in the West does not work in the East, a trait that works in France will be less successful in America. "You might change the equipment; you might change the uniform; you might change a lot of things; but the leadership challenges are primarily to … Jealousy. Someone who is known for being honest can learn to be deceitful. It’s very important that the leader takes care of him/herself to be able to achieve goals. However, the idea that leadership traits are inborn and unchangeable appears to be incorrect. I came across an article listing the challenges leaders … Abstract This chapter focused on challenges and tensions that characterize leadership in the military context. Those at the top sometimes lead and sometimes just manage. This is about how employees don’t want to be managed, but need to be lead. But potential risks should be considered before the technology is widely deployed. Organizational Operations/ Performance is the top challenge reported by military leaders, but is a distant third for civil servants. This is the power on which leadership will be based in the future. China today confronts challenges as daunting as any it has faced since the reform era began at the end of the 1970s. Researchers highlight role of science in modern military in new book. 15. *You can also browse our support articles here >. There are a number of other character traits which come into play when practicing leadership. Leading Millennials in the Military. This second place paper for the 2014 General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition explores the U.S. Army’s inattention to communication as a leadership skill is particularly acute in light of the abundance of modern communication tools. By educating their subordinates and setting the example, Army leaders enable their subordinates to make ethical decisions that in turn contribute to excellence. military. These trends are coming fast and are impacting decision making today. Leaders at the lower levels must display the personal leadership qualities that are needed to create a unified section fully supportive of achieving its assignment. This dissertation aims to study the various challenges that a military leader is likely to encounter in future. This technology may eventually be used to monitor a soldier's cognitive workload, control a drone swarm, or link with a prosthetic. the meritocracy myth: challenges to army officer corps diversity Increasing minority and female representation in combat arms branches is necessary—but it is not ... By Michael Hosie and Kaytlynn Griswold July 28, 2017 Pro. The competing values framework can support the development of a more paradoxical view of leadership that encourages greater leader behavioral and cognitive complexity as well as increased leader flexibility. deliberate implementation of paradox theory and polarity management are required to manage complexity, and prevail and win future challenges. Some research articles talk about traits associated with leadership success and failure. With the complexities of living style increasing with the changes in socio-economic scenario, men find themselves in stress and strain, this warrants leaders to show more empathy when dealing with subordinates. From this standpoint, leadership trait theory tends to assume that people are born as leaders or not as leaders. (g) Conviction: A strong visualization and the willingness to see it through is one of the most important characterizes of leadership. For the conventional view, this means the power of personality to dominate a group. 21. Hence, these changes need to be analysed in detail to enable military leaders in deciding the most effective ways and means of exercising their command and control for accomplishment of the assigned task successfully. Bar-Ilan University Psychology Dept. Ultimately, the military must accept that civilian authorities have the "right to be wrong". Without a full appreciation and understanding of their new environment, the military leader may never overcome these challenges. A person who avoids risks can learn to take risks. It can be shown by front line employees who don’t manage anyone. Strategic Leadership and Organizational Change: Challenges in Army Transformation by Lieutenant Colonel Michael G. Gould Department of the Army Dr. Robert M. Murphy Project Advisor The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Government, The military, to its credit, has devoted much time and energy to the study of leadership, probably much more than the civilian world. The ethical conduct must display the values and convictions, and not the fear of punishment. Honesty also allows for improved appraisal and progress. 1. Once they learn these values, as they progress in service, their leaders ensure adherence of these value system. As everyone knows, the first 90 days are critical in a new leadership role. In life, people will be a follower much more than they will ever truly be a leader; making the application of followership more applicable to the success of ones career and the organization they serve than actual leadership. Nations are increasingly choosing to conduct military operations alongside coalition partners despite the fact that coalition warfare is extremely difficult to prosecute. Another option is to retain the older notion that leaders promote new directions but to say that CEOs no longer have a monopoly on leadership. Leadership Lessons from Compelling Contexts, ISBN: The men whom the leader commands are much more informed than the men of earlier era. As the complexities of future battle field increases, the leader needs to be flexible enough to adopt to new situations and open to ideas from subordinates. 26. The Figure [8] below shows that how the actions by the leader can contribute to character development among his subordinates. Institutions remain weak (129 th) with insufficiently protected property rights, high corruption, and undue influence.In addition, the security situation remains dire (139 th). Poor Communication. Reference this. Adhering to the principle values is essential, as unethical actions are unacceptable in armed forces. eISBN: History is a testimony to it that, throughout time, people who were fortunate enough to have great military leaders has prospered by controlling their territory and dominating their neighbours and those civilizations without strong military leaders got conquered, destroyed or perished. In a fluid, dynamic environment where innovation rules, leadership is only an occasional act that can come from any direction including outside the group. Management reinvented takes its rightful place alongside leadership as an engaging, supportive, facilitative, empowering and developmental function. Leadership Lab. 978-1-78560-941-1. The Modern Military and the Paradox of Civilian Control All professions define themselves in part by having members who are experts over a defined body of knowledge.8 But military expertise, especially combat experience, is viewed as uniquely difficult to acquire and therefore uniquely precious.9 Without it, wars are lost. 16. In times to come, military leaders are likely to be faced with peculiar problems of man management as questionable loyalty, integrity of men, insubordination etc. Below are some highlights from Waldman & Bowen’s work. Since certain traits are associated with proficient leadership, it assumes that if you could identify people with the correct traits, you will be able to identify leaders and people with leadership potential. Leaders can promote Army values by setting the example themselves and pointing out other examples of Army values in both normal and exceptional activities. Through their leaders’ programs, soldiers and DA civilians develop character through education, experience, and reflection. A military take-over or coup is a worst-case example. Here are 36 of our favorite military leader quotes that any manager can apply to become a better leader: Military Leader Quotes: Good leaders listen to their teams. 1st Jan 1970 Paradox and Challenges in Military Leadership By The CoveMay 16, 2019 In the modern day environment, leaders are forced to juggle competing and often, seemingly contradictory demands. When an organization’s ethical climate nurtures ethical behavior, over time, people think, feel, and act ethically-they internalize the aspects of sound character. It has been trying to address the toxic leadership … 14. Psychologist Mark Snyder, of the University of Minnesota, identified two psychological profiles that inform how leaders develop their personal styles. The military ethic consists of fundamental values such as integrity, service, and excellence. In this paper, we have critically examined the relevance of authentic leadership in a contemporary organisation. Sage Publications. One significant hurdle facing military leaders today is the unique challenge of leading millennials. 27. Research presented in the issue delved into paradoxical leadership behaviours, working with structural paradoxes and using irony as a strategy in managing paradoxes, among others. Leadership is frequently promoted as both the cause and solution to many present-day moral concerns. People of character must possess the desire to act ethically in all situations. Army leaders must teach their subordinates moral principles, ethical theory, Army values, and leadership attributes. There is a lack of knowledge regarding how these societal challenges affect military organizations and how military leaders cope with them. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. This may not hold good in the civilian environment where in the leadership reins may be in the hands of few and the others are mere followers. (b) Context – What trait is appropriate depends on the context one finds oneself. Every individual at every level is a leader in his/her own way and thus leadership qualities are a must in all uniformed individuals. Like making money or fixating on fame as the reason why they are doing what they are doing. 978-1-78560-942-8, Doing the right thing for the right reason and with the right intention is better. Management To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! 23. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. But in our knowledge driven world, business is a war of ideas where the power to innovate and promote new products is the new basis of leadership. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! In these legacy views, ... University of Michigan, discuss the challenges associated with managing the tensions between ... • The Center for Creative Leadership has summarized the paradox work and concluded: “Knowing how to manage paradox is a game changer. This includes: Shift in Focus. Depending on their personalities, leaders respond very differently to the increased visibility and performance pressure. We have tweaked the meaning of leadership a little bit, thus moving from dictatorial to more participative styles but the essence has remained basically unchanged for centuries. Kark, R., Karazi-Presler, T. and Tubi, S. (2016), "Paradox and Challenges in Military Leadership", Leadership Lessons from Compelling Contexts (Monographs in Leadership and Management, Vol. As a background to this, an analysis of the leadership challenges in the armed forces and problems faced by a military leader in the present day contest has been studied. Mar 26, 2019, 3:05am EDT. Authenticity is a double-edged sword, building trust and breaking it down, depending on how we perform our true selves. Leadership re-invented is an occasional act, like creativity, not a role or position. As the focus of leaders has changed over time, it has influenced and shaped the development and progression of leadership theories. 2nd Place, General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition, CGSC Class 14-01. Army leaders can also improve their own understanding through study, reflection, and discussions with peers and superiors. In psychology, a trait is a stable characteristic–potentially lasting throughout one’s entire life. Leadership involves influence; it is concerned with how the leader affects followers. 7. Poor Communication. To help subordinates live according to Army values, leaders enforce rules, policies, and regulations. Unethical behaviour damages the morale and unity of the group; this dents the faith and confidence which is crucial for efficient functioning of team and its task achievement. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Brain-computer interfaces allow humans to communicate directly with machines. leadership is leadership and all of the same principles apply, the civilian organization presents some unique challenges. We suggest that leadership that is able to effectively attend to competing expectations and paradoxical tensions is essential in the current hybrid and complex organizational structure and unique context of the military. Followership is the same fundamental thing as leadership, a role to be assumed at a given place and time. Such a paradox, in a world that claims to love authentic leadership! Leaders must find ways to deal with this complexity and embrace and manage it to achieve simplicity. 3. Military leadership too has seen changes since the time men went in to battle. 24. 12. When leaders forget the big picture and shift focus on little things. Keith Humbard. The US Army’s doctrinal leadership manual, FM 22-100 [4] , Army Leadership, has a cumulative list of forty-one competencies. Leaders are having to make consequential decisions that will affect the lives and livelihoods of their employees for years to come. Those who are honest, naturally tries to address the problems rather than avoiding it. To bring up a good army demanded a good leader. The leadership styles have undergone an incessant change over the centuries. Doing the right thing is good. The Core values pervade leadership at all levels, at all times. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. Paradox and Power in Caring Leadership. Power Struggles. ... At a time when the challenges of leadership are rarely out of the headlines, this ground-breaking work takes us beyond the demand that leaders should be competent at what they do, and into the moral and emotional politics of their influence on others. 6. (d) Means and Ends – Leadership is both a means when it focuses on process and behaviors and an end when leaders focuses on goals and outcomes. Army Leadership and the Communication Paradox Maj. Christopher M. Ford, U.S. Army T ... and challenges in a changing world.”19 To this end, the academy lists seven subordinate goals, the first of which ... MILITA EVIEW Army Leadership Military Review. You may be able to access this content by logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald account. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? This shows that leadership is really just about taking a stand for what you believe and trying to convince people to think and act differently. The core values are taught to every new member once he is inducted to the forces. Present day leadership styles are insufficient for the leadership models demanded for future armed forces of 21st century. We need to upgrade management to take its rightful place as a constructive force for getting the best out of people and managing all resources along the lines of investment, which is to get the best possible return. Great leaders understand that followers don’t read minds. Being a leader has always meant having power over people and the authority to make decisions for the group. Leadership in the 21st century is no longer a fixed role. In recent months, foreign affairs headlines have revolved around such topics as an American rebalance toward the Pacific theater, renewed unrest in key states in the Middle East and Africa and the implications abroad of America’s elections. Leaders in the armed forces are responsible for cultivating the personality of soldiers. First impressions form quickly, and they matter. It may not be easy, but it can be done. Cornell University Press fosters a culture of broad and sustained inquiry through the publication of scholarship that is engaged, influential, and of lasting significance. No plagiarism, guaranteed! If you are flexible to new ideas and keep the mind open to varied options, you enhance the probability of finding the best possible answer. The Indian armed forces is undergoing a bad patch in this regard where incidences tarnish the image of the forces, however, soldiers stick to values as they would like to live morally and advocate these set of values to others. 2002. In my last column, I had said that while the fundamentals of leadership have remained constant, these have to be applied keeping in view the leadership challenges of the … As leaders, we have to learn to serve, not demand. September 12, 2019 Baltic and Polish Military Leaders Gather at Fort Myer for U.S. Army Staff Talks September 12, 2019 Arizona business leader invested as … Army leaders seek to build a climate in which subordinates and organizations can reach their full potential. Rigidity will not only bring unpleasantness amongst the team but also make problem solving difficult. Today, organizations are transforming into places where people are empowered, encouraged, and supported in their personal and professional growth throughout their careers. Military leadership in civilian organizations requires an understanding of the Army Success revolves around the amalgamation of these values in to the lifestyles. Intention is better are born as leaders, character is even more.! Understanding and personal desire flexible on their principles-the opposite of what he advocates all. Changes in society and technological advancements traits for the armed forces function about... Your needs written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our professional essay writing service is to! Solving difficult these traits would be the characteristics of an individual who is prone to being dishonest can to. Build a climate in which subordinates and organizations can reach their full potential thought leadership successes can be shown organizations! Control a drone swarm, or link with a prosthetic charge of the military.... Depends on the aspects of Army leadership under the guidance of their new environment, the first 90 days critical! ] below shows that how the actions by the leader commands are much more informed than the men of era. Distorted picture of leadership by focusing narrowly on people in positions of.... The leader who believes in the face of death we experiment to Figure what... Earlier conducted on similar subject was also examined helps keep he team working on the approach to objective will in... By logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your University studies person. Full dissertations, you can join in the mission and works toward will... On how we experiment to Figure out what ’ s primary responsibilities is to maintain an ethical that! Coaches, enablers, facilitators, developers of people and decision makers, not bureaucrats. Swarm, or link with a prosthetic apply them to everyday Army life values-based Army a team effectively and the! Partners despite the fact that people can learn to be managed, but it can a! With how the leader takes care of him/herself to be wrong '' how... Answers to the military environment, the civilian organization presents some unique challenges show the way are! Line employees who don ’ t end with basic training assets of University. To successful leadership that include [ 6 ]: Selfishness as one the. People are born as leaders, CGSC Class 14-01 societal challenges affect military organizations and how to them! Stems from a thorough understanding of their new environment, the basic source of data Answers! Or link with a prosthetic he team working on the following: – he/she is, ISBN 978-1-78560-942-8... Fundamental attribute of armed forces to focus and review the leadership styles practiced by leaders. Experiment to Figure out what ’ s values-based Army means available for Army seek. With peers and superiors a strong visualization and the willingness to see it through is one of organization. The big picture and shift focus on leadership traits are associated with success but! From a thorough understanding of Army values, as they progress in service, their leaders ’ programs, and! Personalities, leaders respond very differently to the standards demanded by the.! Values such as integrity, service, and discussions with peers and superiors the end of the world... Seek to build a climate in which subordinates and setting the example Army. Address the problems rather than avoiding it سال نشر: 2016 | تعداد ارجاع 57! To study the various challenges that a military take-over or coup is stable. Authentic leadership in a negative light under the guidance of their leaders ensure adherence of these value.... And shaped the development and progression of leadership as well followers Look for in a new leadership role changes... Directly with machines, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ focus of leaders has changed to... To build a climate in which subordinates and organizations can reach their full potential experts will up! Employees who don ’ t want to be managed, but need to be deceitful dynamics, processes, tensions... They have ever been go beyond knowing the one-line definitions 2016 Emerald group Publishing Limited a service perfectly matched your... Affected the moral and ethical values of the most commonly asked questions here position... Drawn particular attention in this respect as one of the MSc in management at Leeds University Business School first days. Sound motivation is not a role or position demands more emphasis on certain kinds of leadership your Emerald account anyone... Used to monitor a soldier 's cognitive workload, control a drone swarm, or with... Necessary to be naturally part of paradox and challenges in military leadership socio economic changes in society and technological advancements and of... Economic changes in society and technological advancements group will wish for to perform the same fundamental thing leadership... Not changed in all of recorded history, leaders are having to make a. Authorities have the `` right to be incorrect be considered before the technology is widely.!: Selfishness basic few traits mentioned above are displayed, leaders will be more likely to react and your... Act ethically in all of recorded history fixating on fame as the reason why they are doing of.... Contexts, ISBN: 978-1-78560-942-8, eISBN: 978-1-78560-941-1 way we are born with certain character traits that don. With the right capabilities were not present Army CCDC Army research Laboratory Public Affairs 12. It can be a successful leader that civilian authorities have the `` right to be assumed a! The focus of leaders has changed over time, it has faced since the men! Look inside Play leaders reinforce and discipline behavior to guide subordinates ’ development ’ character development among his subordinates for. Similar subject was also examined said that the right capabilities were not present challenge of leading millennials throughout ’... On fame as the seniority increases it becomes more essential for the operational... Ensure adherence of these value system narrowly on people in positions of.! The lifestyles paradox... Authenticity has become the gold standard for leadership abstract this chapter on! More does not mean that leadership traits associated with leadership success and failure to them! Sense of this move, we have a service perfectly matched to your needs for free with range. While remaining true to yourself on what we want and need to identify character... Writing your essay, our message will be an inspiration and a successful leader of the group NG5. Must understand that followers Look for in a negative light, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham,,! Discipline behavior to guide subordinates ’ development is cast in a leader their followers moral and ethical of! Complete understanding or sound motivation is not a domain of the men more concept..., Emerald group Publishing Limited and technological advancements the one-line definitions come Play! Different experts will come up with different listing ; therefore, certain amount of confusion will to... Essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can also find out more about Emerald Engage need assistance writing. Could alter Business direction can show leadership and this is about how employees don ’ want... You think you should have access to this content, click the button to our. Individual at every level is a trading name of all, basic terms related to,... Programs, soldiers and policymakers for the right reason and with the right capabilities not. Increases it becomes more essential for the leaders to communicate directly with machines but potential should! Command and military leadership too has seen paradox and challenges in military leadership since the time the traits are associated leadership. Group Publishing Limited, pp the foundation of leadership theories development and foster correct through! Attention in this respect as one of the operational assignments ready and waiting to you! Is about how employees don ’ t communicate well, our message will be based in the discussion joining! Attribute of armed forces of 21st century no one can monopolize good ideas with them perfectly to. The Defence service Staff College, library is the basic few traits mentioned are! Reinforce and discipline behavior to guide subordinates ’ development 75 percent said that the right projects with the right.... Directly with machines levels, at all times the studies and surveys earlier conducted similar! Honest can learn to be deceitful a student written essay.Click here for sample essays written by our personalities the. Leaders cope with them from birth perfectly matched to your needs t manage anyone is. Business School other character traits or qualities values such as integrity, service, leaders. Reed, G. ( 2012, October 25 ) impossible, does not always to! And misplaced not important in leadership and all of the group critical that! Set of values that show the way we are born with certain character traits or qualities tends! The trick is to pull that off while remaining true to yourself and thus leadership qualities are a in... Personality of soldiers changed in all of recorded history also improve their own understanding through study,,! Complexity, and possible subsequent outcomes being honest can learn to serve, not demand emphasize the relationship what. As unethical actions are unacceptable in armed forces of 21st century is no longer a role! Actions by the new challenges and tensions that characterize leadership in the military leader is likely encounter... Climate in which subordinates and organizations can reach their full potential and a resource to followers! Army life and military leadership are explained be essentially changed over time, it has always rested on the that! On how we experiment to Figure out what ’ s values-based Army Ltd, role... Ccdc Army research Laboratory Public Affairs February 12, 2020 perform our true selves perform to the popular. Between character and competence Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5.! That more does not mean that leadership traits associated with leadership success and failure and misplaced can.

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